• Personality Theories
    • Introduction
In this page we will be going over the main personality theories along with the psychologists who came up with them. Some of the main theorists are Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler, and Carl Jung. Personality is characteristics consistently displayed and uniquely in every person. Personality theorists do many things including trying to discover patterns in behavior, explain differences between individuals, explore how people conduct their lives, and find how lives can be improved. Some of the theories are Psychoanalytic,
    • Psychoanalysis
      • Freud
      • http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/freud.html
      • Sigmund Freud theorized that some of the most powerful influences are with the unconscious.
      • Childhood experiences literally come back to haunt you.
      • Freud also theorized that the mind was split into three "personalities." The Id, ego and superego.
      • The Id is the self gratification or more impulsive, instinctive, childish personality.
        • The Id is also the largest part of the three
        • " I want what I want when I want it"
      • The Ego is the rational thoughtful reality principle.
        • The Ego is considered the balance between the superego and Id.
        • Ex: The person knows that stealing the food is wrong but if he doesnt then he will starve to death.
      • The Superego is the moral principle
        • Ex: The person does not want to have a snack because he knows that it will spoil his dinner.
      • Defense mechanisms are things that the mind will do to defend the ego.
        • The defense mechanisms can be good in that they will relieve confusion and they can be bad in that they will prevent a person from facing their problems.
        • Types of defense mechanisms:
          • Repression- a person forgets the incident.
          • Projection- belief that impulses coming from within are really coming from other people.
          • Reaction Formation- Replacing unacceptable feeling or urge eith its opposite.
          • Regression- going back to a less mature pattern or behavior.
          • Displacement- move your anxiety to a different area.
            freaud.jpg
            Freud
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      • Jung
      • http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/jung.html
      • Along with Freud Carl Jung believed in the id, ego and superego.
      • But he believes that everyone is born with some sort of knowledge in experiences that they are not aware of.
        • Some examples of this are love at first sight, deja vu, and the immediate recognition of certain symbols and the meanings of certain myths.
        • He also thinks that we were built to experience near-death experiances.
      • Jung also thought of archetypes which is an unlearned tendancy to experience things in a certain way.
        • There are 3 main archetypes
          • The mother archetype.
          • The shadow
          • The persona
        • along with many more types.
      • The goal in life is self fullfillment according to jung.
      • Introversion and Extroversion
        • He developed a personality typology that has become his most popular piece of work.
        • Introverts are people who prefer their internal thoughts, feelings, etc...
        • Extroverts are people who prefer the external world of things, activities, and people.
      • Believes there are 4 basic functions for how we need to deal with the world.
        • Sensing- getting info by means of senses.
        • Thinking- evaluating info rationally, and logically.
        • Intuiting- kind of perception that works outside of the usual concious procceses.
        • Feeling- evaluating informaton by weighing in the emotions.
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        Jung

      • Adler
        • http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/adler.html
        • Striving for Perfection Theory
          • the desire for an individual to fulfill all potential
        • Aggression Drive
          • the drive to satisfy basic needs
        • Masculine Protest
          • Boys strive to be strong, aggressive, in control
          • Men are basically better than women b/c they have the power, motivation, education and talent needed to do great things and women do not
          • This is not natural it is encouraged
          • Both boys and girls have the ability for "protest"
        • Striving for Superiority
          • individuals strive to be better than others
        • Holism
          • in order to understand people, we have to understand them more as unified wholes than as a collection of bits and pieces.
          • Also known as individual psychology
        • Lifestyle
          • refers to how you live your life, how you handle problems and inter personal relations
        • Teleology
          • people are drawn towards their goals, their purposes and ideals
        • Social interest
          • Anyone striving for perfection can hardly do so w/o considering their social environment
          • As social animals we need other people to thrive
          • Social concern was not simply inborn, nor just learned, but a combination of both
          • It is based on an innate disposition, but it has to be nurtured to survive
        • Inferiority
          • If you are moving along, doing well, feeling competent, you can afford to think of others. If you are not, if life is getting the best of you, then your attentions become increasingly focussed on yourself. About how you are inferior.
          • Types of inferiority
            • Organ inferiority- each of us has weaker, as well as stronger, parts of our anatomy or physiology.
            • Compensation- They make up for their deficiencies in some way:
            • Psychological inferiority- Some peopleare told that they are dumb, or ugly, or weak. Some poeple come to believe that they are just plain no good because people tell them they are, even thou they are not.
            • Inferiority complex- When people are overwhelmed by the forces of inferiority and it starts to hurt them physically.


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Adler