"You may say I'm a dreamer, but I'm not the only one." -John Lennon

John Lennon was right, he's not the only dreamer! In fact, everyone dreams. There are five stages of sleep, and it is in the REM or Rapid Eye Movement stage when most dreams occur.


((stage one))

AKA drowsiness. This stage lasts for about 5-10 minutes and if someone is awoken at this point, the person will feel as though they have not slept and no time has passed.

((stage two))

AKA light sleep. In this stage, the heart rate slows and body temperature decreases, while the body is preparing to enter a deep sleep. Brain waves become slower, with occasional "bursts" in brainwaves.
==((stage three))==AKA deeper sleep, but not as deep as stage four. Brainwaves are slow. This stage is mostly just a transition into stage four. This is the stage where bed wetting and sleepwalking occur.

==((stage four))==AKA deep sleep. A certain amount of stage four sleep is required for survival.

==((REM))==AKA Rapid Eye Movement. Brain waves are almost identical to those of someone who is awake, and if someone is awoken during this stage, they will be confused about where they are. Dreams seem real during this stage.



A: A dream is a succession of images, thoughts, or emotions passing through the mind during sleep.

A Dream Deffered
by Langston Hughes
What happens to a dream deffered? 
Does it dry up
like a rasin in the sun?
Or fester like a sore--
And then run?
Does it stink like rotten meat?
Or crust and sugar over--
like a syrupy sweet?
Maybe it just sags
like a heavy load.
Or does it explode?

the purpose of dreams.

Langston Hughes is not the only person who has found symbolic meanings for dreams, relating them to goals and aspirations. There has been extensive debate over the purpose of dreams, and here are some theories:
  • Freud thought that dreams let our mind express things that we must suppress while we are awake (such as sexual desires)
  • Jung said that dreams were the counterpart to our one-sided opinions that we have while we are awake
  • Ferenczi thought that dreams are the product of what we don't say outright
  • Hartmann said that dreams "make connections in a safe place" so that connections and ideas can be formed that wouldn't be joined together during waking hours


how much sleep do we need?

The amount of sleep a person needs in order to function effectively varies considerably from individual to individual and fromtime to time within a person's life. Newborns spend an average of 16 to 18 hours a day sleeping, almost half of it in REM sleep. Sixteen year olds may spend as much as 10 to 11 hourse asleep each night. Students in graduate school average 8 hours a night.

Men and women who are 70 years old or older may need only 5 hours of sleep. Adults average about 25% of their time in REM sleep, and 75% in NREM sleep. Although the amount of sleep a person needs may vary, it does appear that everyone sleeps and that both types of sleep are important to normal functioning.


random dream facts!

  • some people experience lucid dreaming, when a person knows they are dreaming and have control over what happens in their dreams
  • dreams of absent-minded transgression are dreams where the dreamer performs something they have been trying to stop (ex: an alcoholic who has been trying to drink would consume alcohol in a dream). After these dreams, people awake feeling guilty.
  • sometimes people dream things they are actually doing, such as dreaming of using the bathroom while actually wetting the bed
  • dream incorporation occurs when outside sounds are incorporated into a dream (usually only occurs with repeating sounds)

G R O U P S .


Q: What do all groups have in common?

A: communication, interdependence, and goals

c o m m u n i c a t i o n :
  • external- showing physically that you are part of a group (ex: wearing an organization's logo)
  • internal- communicating with members of the group without physically being with the members
  • direct- talking face to face with group members

i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e
  • group members each depend on each other
  • the actions of each group member influence the other group members

g o a l s
  • ideal that the group is working toward
  • ex: the goal of a corporation is to make money

G R O U P V O C A B.

  • norms - rule of behavior that is deemed "normal" by society's standards
  • commitment - every group member must make some sort of sacrifice (ex: when joining a sorority of fraternity, you give the social sacrifice of your pride)
  • diffusion of responsibility- not everyone does the same jobs, the jobs are spread out within a group. for instance, in a car factory, not everyone attaches the tires, or checks the engine, only one person does each job.


"The National Sleep Foundation." Sleep Foundation. 2007. Kintera Empowered Community. 18 Jan 2008 <>.

"Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep." National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. 21 May 2007. NINDS. 21 Jan 2008 <>.

"Group (sociology)." 2007. 21 Jan 2008 <>.