SLEEP is the altered state of consciousness characterized by certain patterns of brain activity. There are different stages of sleep throughout the night. Before you fall asleep, you are in the hynagogic stage. This is the dreamlike stage you are in while falling asleep or waking up.

The first stage of sleep usually lasts about ten minutes and has irregular brain waves. This is the point where you are "just drifting" off to sleep. Stage two is a deeper sleep with eye movement. A person stays in the stage for about thirty minutes. In stage three sleep it is an even deeper sleep with large brain waves. Finally stage four is a person's deepest sleep containing regular brain waves for about fifty percent of the time. During stage four sleep talking, sleepwalking, and bedwetting may occur and you will be disoriented if woken up. This is also the point of sleep where REM (rapid eye movement) occurs. REM is the point of sleep where your brain is very active and you begin dreaming. You NEED this kind of sleep to be physically and psychologically well.REM only lasts about ten minutes before you go back to stage one sleep and repeat the cycle. The cycle repeats about every ninety minutes throughout the night.



The amount of sleep you need depends upon your age, health, mental health, and schedule.

DREAMS are the mental activity that takes places during sleep. Everybody and every mammal has dreams. It is even being studied that the visually impaired can have dreams. This is because your brain is never inactive. In fact, a certain amount of dreaming needs to occur each night. When someone first falls asleep, their dreams are very vague and tend to be thoughts from the day. As they fall into a deeper sleep, the dreams become longer and more dramatic. The last dream that someone has tends to be the longest and the most likely to recall.

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Dreams are more easily rememebered when they are
intresting. Most dreams occur in a commonplace, occur at a realistic time scale, and tend to be negative or unpleasant. Dreams can also be very suggestive.

Nightmares or Night Terrors are very different kinds of dreams. These are dreams that are very disturbing and will cause a person to wake up during their dream. The good news is that only a small portion of our dreams are nightmares. Nightmares develop in children ages 3-6 right around the time that our first real fears develop. As we get older, we have fewer and fewer nightmares. Nighterrors are very extreme cases of nightmares and cause episodes of panic.

Sigmund Freud believed that dreams contain clues to thoughts and desires that we are afraid to acknowledge. He said that dreams were full of hidden messages. This brought about the idea of dream interpretation, the process of
assigning meaning to dreams. Other psychologists believe that dreams serve no function. They believe they are the by-product of stimulating certain brain cells. Today their are dozens of dream intepreters who can analyze your dreams and give you answers to the hidden messages in your dreams.

click on this picture to have your dreams interpreted

All groups share three things in common; interdependence, goals, and communication. Interdependence is defined as depending on each person in the group. This means that any action taken by any one person in the group will effect all other members. Goals are defined as the purpose in which you are working towards. Groups work together to get jobs done and fulfill each others emotional needs. Communication is defined as the exchange of thoughts, behaviors, and information. Communication can be external, internal, or direct.
External communication is something that physically shows that you are part of the group. This could be wearing a shirt with the groups logo on it. Internal communication is the way you communicated among the group without being together. This could be a phone call or an e-mail. Direct communication is when you are together and talking with other members of the group.

Groups are held together in three ways: norms, ideology, and commitment. Norms are specific rules of behavior. Ideology is the common ideas, attitudes, and values that you and the other group members share. Commitment in the group depends on your participation and personal sacrifice.

Group Structure is based on personal relationships, the rank of each person, and the roles that they play.

Communication Patterns
Sociograms represent the way in which people communicate. There are several different types of sociograms including a chain, circle, wheel, and a Y. Each of these sociograms is shaped just the way it sounds. It shows who will communicate with who and it also reveals how efficent each stratedy is.


Leadership always emerges from groups. It can be a personality trait or a result of experience.

Diffusion of Responsibility
The way that people always assume that someone else will help or react to a situation

Works Cited
Sleep MD, "Nightmares". Sleep MD. 2008 <>.
Sleepdex, "How Much Sleep Does A Person Need?". Sleepdex. 2008 <>.

Made by:
Audrey K.
Cayla H.